United Kingdom - Explained

The Union Jack or Union Flag is the national flag of the United Kingdom. The flag also has an official or semi-official status in some other Commonwealth realms; for example, it is, by parliamentary resolution, a ceremonial flag in Canada and known there as the Royal Union Flag.  Further, it is used as an official flag in some of the smaller British overseas territories. The Union Flag also appears in the canton (upper left-hand quarter) of the flags of several nations and territories that are former British possessions or dominions.

The Royal Standard of the United Kingdom refers to either one of two similar flags used by Queen Elizabeth II in her capacity as Sovereign of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. Two versions of the flag exist, one for general use in England, Northern Ireland, Wales and overseas; and the other for use in Scotland.

Although almost universally called a standard, such flags when used in the United Kingdom are banners of arms, as they comprise the shield of the Royal Arms. Since the 1960s, Queen Elizabeth II has had several personal flags designed for her use as sovereign of certain Commonwealth realms.

The Royal Standard of the United Kingdom is flown when the Queen is in residence in one of the royal palaces and on her car, ship or aeroplane.
United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (usually shortened to the United Kingdom or the UK) is a political union of the four constituent countries (or Home Nations) of England, Scotland, and Wales on the island of Great Britain, and Northern Ireland on the island of Ireland.
Great Britain

Great Britain is an island lying off the north-western coast of Europe and to the east of Ireland, comprising the main territory of the United Kingdom. Great Britain is also used as a political term describing the combination of the countries England, Scotland and Wales, which together comprise the entire island and include some outlying islands.

England is the largest and most populous home nation of the United Kingdom. It accounts for more than 83% of the total UK population, occupies most of the southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain and shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. Elsewhere, it is bordered by the North Sea, Irish Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and English Channel.

Scotland (Alba in Gaelic) is a nation in northwest Europe and a constituent country of the United Kingdom. The country occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain, shares a land border to the south with England, and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west.

Wales (Welsh: Cymru; pronounced approximately "COME-ree") is one of the four constituent nations of the United Kingdom. Wales is located in the south-west of Great Britain and is bordered by the English counties of Cheshire, Shropshire, Herefordshire, and Gloucestershire to the east, the Bristol Channel to the south, St George's Channel to the southwest, and the Irish Sea to the west and north.
Republic of Ireland

The Republic of Ireland (Irish: Poblacht na h√Čireann) is the official description of the sovereign state which covers approximately five-sixths of the island of Ireland, off the coast of north-west Europe.
Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland is one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. While the remaining three constituents, Scotland, Wales and England are regarded as "nations", the application of the term to Northern Ireland is highly disputed. All constituents of the United Kingdom (except England) have systems of devolved government.